Difficult Renal Stones
diverticula are thin-walled cystic cavities located in the peripheral
to an otherwise normal calyx, which communicate through a narrow
channel. They are lined by transitional epithelium, which is the
same tissue that lines the urinary tract. These cysts may originate
from embryogenesis, blunt renal trauma or obstruction. They occur
in any part of the kidney, but usually originate from an upper pole
diverticulum with multiple stones. a, Abdominal plain film shows
multiple calculi (arrow) over the upper pole of the right kidney.
b, On ten-minute excretory urogram (EXU), all stones are shown
to be locate in an upper pole calyceal diverticulum (arrow).
diverticula are found in both males and females. Stones may occur
in diverticulum. Thirty-six percent of diverticula were found to
have stones in one series. These stones may include calcium oxalate,
calcium phosphate or carbonate apatite.
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BS, Abeshouse GA: Calyceal diverticulum: A report of 16 cases and
review of the literature. Urol Int 15:329, 1963.